Close this search box.
Close this search box.


Research update

New Research Shows Natural Progesterone Can Help Treat Breast Cancer (Part 1). Posted by L. Kroon, Editor. The ZRT Laboratory Blog, December 1, 2015.

Newer Research Study Comparing BHRT to HRT:
HRT with Cardiovascular and Breast Cancer Risk Reduction

Books by Recommended Authors

Hertoghe, Thierry, MD, The Hormone Solution – Stay Younger Longer.  2002, Three Rivers Press.

Hertoghe, Thierry, MD, Passion, Sex and Long Life.  2010, International Medical Books.

Jackson, Nisha, PhD, The Hormone Survival Guide for Perimenopause.  2004, Larkfield Publishing.

Northrup, Christiane, MD, The Wisdom of Menopause.  2001, Bantam Books.

Randolph, C.W. MD and James, Genie, MMSc, From Hormone Hell to Hormone Well.  2009, Health Communications.

Reiss, Uzzi, MD, Natural Hormone Balance.  2001, Pocket Books.

Schwartz, Erika, MD, The 30 day Natural Hormone Plan.  2004, Warner Books.

Shippen, Eugene, MD, Testosterone Syndrome.  1998, M. Evans & Co.

Smith, Pamela Wartian Smith, MD, MPH, Women’s Hormones.  2010, Squareone Publishers.

Taylor, Eldred, MD and Ava Bell-Taylor, MD,  Are Your Hormones Making You Sick?  2000, Physicians Natural Medicine

Vliet, Elizabeth Lee, MD, The Savvy Woman’s Guide to Testosterone.  2005, HER Place Press.

Vliet, Elizabeth Lee, MD, Screaming To Be Heard.  2001, M. Evans & Co.

Wright, Jonathan, MD, Natural Hormone Replacement.  1997, Smart Publications.

Web References  Reference for women’s health and sexual pleasure  Reference for endocrine disruptors in products we use and lists of healthy products, a great public watch group to suppport

Articles Bio-identical Hormone References


1. Walker CR; Bioidentical Hormone Replacement Therapy. Advance for Nurse Practitioners. May 2001. 2-5.

2. Hargrove JT, et at; An Alternative Method of Hormone Replacement Therapy Using the Natural Sex Steroids. Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, October 1995;6(4)653-674.

3. Hargrove JT, et at; Menopause. Med Clin North Am. November 1995 79(6):pp. 1337-1356.

4. Speroff L, Glass R, Kase N; Gynecological Endocrinology and Infertility. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

5. Speroff L, et al. Gynecological Endocrinology and lnfertflity. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

6. Fraser, Ian S. Estrogens and Progestogens in Clinical Practice. London, England: Churchill Livingstone, 1998.

7. Taylor M; Alternative to Conventional Hormone Replacement Therapy. Comp Therapy, 1997 23(8):514‑532

8. Hargrove JT, eta!; Menopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy with Continuous Daily Oral Micronized Estradiol and Progesterone.Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1989, 73(4):606-612.

9. Ahlgrimm M; Natural Hormone Replacement: Individualized Treatment vs. One-size-fits-all Therapy. American Journal of Natural Medicine. September 1997.4(7):6-7.

10. Moskowitz D; Changing Views: The Emergence and Efficacy of Natural Hormones in the Treatment of Menopause. JANA. Fall 2000;3(3):36-44.

11. de Lignieres B, et at; Risks and Benefits of Hormone Replacement Therapy. Cephalalgia. 2000.20(3):164-169.

12. de Lignières B, et at; Pharmacodynamics of Oestrogens and Pro gestogens. Cephalalgia, 2000:20(3):200-207.

13. Gambacciana M,Genazzani AR; Hormone replacement therapy: the benefits in tailoring the regimen and dose. Maturitas 2001 Dec 14;401(3):195-201.

14. Packin GS; Update: the latest on hormone replacement therapy. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2000 Oct; 100(10 Su Pt 1):S2-5.

15. Faulkner DL, Young C, Hutchins D, McCollam JS; Patient noncompliance with hormone replacement therapy: a nationwide estimate using a large prescription claims database. Menopause 1998; 5(4):226-229

16, Berman RS, Epstein RS, Lydick E. Risk factors associated with women’s compliance with estrogen replacement therapy. J Womens Health. 1997 Apr;6(2):219-26.


17. Gaby AR; Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Preventing and Reversing Osteoporosis Chapter 14:1-5.

18. Taylor M. Unconventional estrogens: estriol, biest, and West. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Dec;44(4):864-79.

19. Wright JV, et a!; Comparative Measurements of Serum Estriol, Estradiol, and Estrone in Non-pregnant, Premenopausal Women: A Preliminary Investigation. Alternative Medicine Review, 1999;4(4):266­270.

20. Bush TL, et at; Estrogen Use and All-Cause Mortality. JAMA. 1983.259(7):903-906.

21. Vasquez JM, Samaras CA, Nezhat C. Endocrine studies in postmenopausal women during oral replacement therapy with unconjugated oestrogens. Reproduction. 1982 Apr-Jun;6(2):49-59

22. Habiba M, Akkad A, al-Azzawi F. Effect of a new cyclical sequential postmenopausal HRT on lipoprotein, apoprotein and thrombophilia profile. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1995 Sep;62(1):89-94

23. Townsend PT, Dyer GI, Young 0, Whitehead Ml, Collins WP. The absorption and metabolism of oral oestradiol, oestrone and oestriol. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1981 Aug;88(8):846-52.


24. Head KA; Estriol: Safety and Efficacy. Alternative Medicine Review, 1998; 3(2):101-113.

25. Tzingounis VA. Estriol in the Management of the Menopause. JAMA, April 21, 1978; 239(16):1638­1641.

26. Yang TS; Efficacy and Safety of Estriol Replacement Therapy for Climacteric Women. Chinese Medical (Taipei), May 1995; 55(5):386-391.

27. Takahashi K, Okada M, Ozaki T, Kurioka H, Manabe A, Kanasaki H, Miyazaki K. Safety and efficacy of oestriol for symptoms of natural or surgically induced menopause. Hum Reprod. 2000 May;15(5):1028-36

28. Granberg S, Eurenius K, Lindgren R, Wilhelmsson L The effects of oral estriol on the endometrium in postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2002 Jun 25;42(2):149-56

29. Manonai J, Theppisai. Effect of oral estriol on urogenital symptoms, vaginal cytology, and plasma hormone level in postmenopausal women. J Med Assoc Thai. 2001 Apr,84(4):539-44.

30. Yoshimura T, Okamura Fl; Short term oral estriol treatment restores normal premenopausal vagina flora to elderly women. Maturitas 2001 Sep 28;39(3):253-257

31. Haspels A, Luisi M, Kicovic P. Endocrinological and clinical investigations in post-menopausal women following administration of vaginal cream containing oestriol. Maturitas. 1981 Dec;3(3-4):321-7

32. Koloszar S, Kovacs L. Treatment of climacteric urogenital disorders with an estriol-containing ointment. Ory Hetil 1995 Feb 12;136(7):343-5.

33. Follingstad AH; Estriol the Forgotten Estrogen? JAMA, 1978; 239: 29-30.

34. Takahashi K, et al; Safety and Efficacy of Oestriol for Symptoms of Natural or Surgically Induced Menopause. Human Reproduction. 2000; 15(5):1028-1036.

35. Katzenellenbogen BS; Biology and Receptor Interactions of Estriol and Estriol Derivatives In Vitro and In Vivo. J. Steroid Biochem, 1984; April 20(4B):1033-1037.

36. Longcope C; Estriol Production and Metabolism in Normal Women. J. Steroid Biochem, 1984;20(4B):959-962.

37. losif CS. Effects of protracted administration of estriol on the lower genito urinary tract in postmenopausal women. Arch Gynecol Obstet 1992;251(3)115-20

38. Phillips A, Hahn OW, McGuire JL. Comparative effect of estriol and equine conjugated estrogens on

the uterus and the vagina. Maturitas. 1984 Mar,5(3)147-52


39. Mendelsohn ME, et al; The Protective Effects of Estrogen on the Cardiovascular System. NEJM 1999; June 19, 340(23)1801-1811.

40. Snabes MC, et al; Physiologic Estradiol Replacement Therapy and Cardiac Structure and Function in Normal Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology. March 1997, 89(3):332-339.

41. Pelzer T, et al; Estrogen Effects in the Heart. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 1996; 160/161: 307-313.

42. Mosca L; The Role of Hormone Replacement Therapy in the Prevention of Postmenopausal Heart Disease. Arch Intern Med. 2000, August 14-28; 160(15): 2263-2272.

43. Chen FP, et al; Comparison of transdermal and oral estrogen-progestin replacement therapy: effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Menopause. 2001; 8(5):347-352.

44. Gerhard M, Walsh B, Tawakol A, et al. Estradiol with or without progesterone and ambulatory blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Hypertension. 1999 May;33(5)1190-4

45. Wagner JO; Rationale for Hormone Replacement Therapy in Atherosclerosis Prevention. J. Reprod. Med. 2000, March; 45(3 suppl):245-258.

46. Cushman M, et al; Effect of Postmenopausal Hormones on Inflammation-Sensitive Proteins: The Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Intervention (PEP!) Study. Circulation. 1999, August 17. 100(7):717-722.

47. Vehkavaara S, Silveira A, Hakaka-Ala-Pietila T, et al. Effects of oral and transdemial estrogen replacement therapy on markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis, inflammation and serum lipids and lipoproteins in postmenopausal women. Thromb Haemost 2001 Apr,85(4):619-25

48. Toy JL, Davies JA, Hancock KW, McNicol GP. The comparative effects of a synthetic and a ‘natural’ oestrogen on the haemostatic mechanism in patients with primary amenorrhoea. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1978 May;85(5):359-62

49. Toy JL, Davies JA, McNicol GP. The effects of long-term therapy with oestriol succinate on the haemostatic mechanism in postmenopausal women. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1978 May;85(5):363-6.

50. Dubey RK, Gillespie DG, Jackson EK, Keller PJ. 17Beta-estradiol, its metabolites, and progesterone inhibit cardiac fibroblast growth. Hypertension. 1998 Jan;31(1 Pt 2):522-8.

51. Seelig MS. Interrelationship of magnesium and estrogen in cardiovascular and bone disorders, eclampsia, migraine and premenstrual syndrome. J Am Coll Nutr. 1993 Aug;12(4):442-58. Review.


53. The Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEP!) Trial (see nos. 54 and 55).

54. Barrett- Connor E, Slone S, Greendale G, Kritz-Silverstein D, Espeland M, Johnson SR, Waclawiw M, Fineberg SE. The Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions Study: primary outcomes in adherent women. Maturitas. 1997 Jul;27(3):261-74

55. The Writing Group for the PEP) Trial; Effects of Estrogen or Estrogen/ Progestin Regimens on Heart Disease – Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women: The Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEP!) Trial. JAMA, Jan. 1995; 273(3)199-208.

56. Writing Group for the Women’s Health initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. Principle results from the Women’s Health initiative randomized controlled trail. JAMA 2002;288:321-333.

57. Karjalainen A, et al; Metabolic Changes Induced by Peroral Oestrogen and Transdermal Oestradiol Gel Therapy. Br J Obsstet Gynaecol, Nov 1997; 104 Suppl 16:38-43.

58. Borglin N, et al; Oral Treatment of Menopausal Symptoms with Natural Oestrogens -Experiences with a New Series of Oestrogens and Oestrogen-Gestagen Combinations. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Supp11975, (43): 1-11

59. Walsh BW, et al; Effects of Postmenopausal Hormone Replacement with Oral and Transdermal Estrogen on High Density Lipoprotein Metabolism. J Lipid Res, Nov 1994; 35(11):2083-2093.

60. Haines C, et al; Effect of Oral Estradiol on Lp(a) and Other Lipoproteins in Postmenopausal Women. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Crossover Study. Arch Intern Med, Apr. 22, 1996; 156(8): 866-872.

61. Ito’ H, et al; Comparison of the Long-Term Effects of Oral Estriol with The Effects of Conjugated Estrogen on Serum Lipid Profile in early Menopausal Women. Maturitas 2000,36: 217-222.


62. D. Altkorn, Vokes, T; Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. JAMA. March 21, 2001; 285(11):14151418.

63. Dalsky GP; eta); Weight-Bearing Exercise Training and Lumbar Bone Mineral Content in Postmenopausal Women. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1988: 108:824-828.

64. Deng X, Wang W, et al; Correlation Between Bone Mineral Density and Sexual Hormones in Healthy Chinese Women. Journal of Environmental Path., lox. & Oncology 2000. 19 (1&2):167-169.

65. Nelson ME, et al; Effects of High-Intensity Strength Training on Multiple Risk Factors for Osteoporotic Fractures. JAMA. December 28, 1994; 272(24):1909-1914.

66. Prior JC, et al; Spinal Bone Loss and Ovulatory Disturbances. NEJM Nov. 1, 1990;323(18):1221-7.

67. Abu EO, et al; The Localization of Androgen Receptors in Human Bone. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1997.2(10):3493-3497.

68. Reid IR; The Roles of Calcium and Vitamin Din the Prevention of Osteoporosis. Endo & Metab Clinics of North America June 1998; 27(2):389-398

69. Feskanich D, et al; Milk Dietary Calcium, and Bone Fractures in Women: A 12-Year Prospective Study. Am Journal of Public Health. June 1997; 8(6):992-997.

70. Kanai T, Takagi T, Masuhiro K, Nakamura M, Iwata M, Saji F. Serum vitamin K level and bone mineral density in post-menopausal women. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1997 Jan;56(1):25-30.


71. Lindsay R; The Role of Estrogen in the Prevention of Osteoporosis. Endo & Metab Clinics of NA June 98; 27(2): 399-409.

72. Arenbrecht S, Boersmans A. Effects of transdermal estradiol delivered by a matrix patch on bone density in hysterectomized, postmenopausal women: a 2-year placebo-controlled trial. Osteoporos Int 2002; 13:176-183.

73. Minaguchi H, et al; Effect of Estriol on Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Japanese Women: A Multicenter Prospective Open Study. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. June 1996; 22(3): 259-65.

74. Nozaki M, et al; Usefulness of Estriol for the Treatment of Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women. 1996. Dept. Gynecology & Obstet, Japan.

75. Nishibe A, et al; Effect of Estriol and Bone Mineral Density of Lumbar Vertebrae in Elderly and Postmenopausal Women. 1996. Dept. of Geriatric Medicine. Japan.

76. Ettinger B, et al; The Waning Effect of Postmenopausal Estrogen Therapy on Osteoporosis. NEJM. Oct. 14, 1995; 329(16):1192-3.

77. Hayaski T, et al; Estriol (E3) Replacement Improves Endothelial Function and Bone Mineral Density in Very Elderly Women.Jour Geology Biol Sci 2000; 55A(4):B183-B190.

78. Rol H, et al; Comparison of the long-term effects of oral estriol with the effects of conjugated estrogen, 1-a-hydroxyvitamin D3, and calcium lactate on vertebral bone loss in early menopausal women. Maturitas 28 (1997) 11-17

79. Prestwood KM, Kenny AM, Unson C, Kulldorff M. The effect of low dose micronized 17ss-estradiol on bone turnover, sex hormone levels, and side effects in older women: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Dec;85(12):4462-9.


80. Kirkengen AL, et al.; Oestriol in the Prophylactic Treatment of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Postmenopausal Women. Scand J. Prim Health Car 1992 June;10(2):139-142.

81. Raz R, Stamm WE. A controlled trial of intravaginal estriol in postmenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections. N Engl J Med. 1993 Sep 9;329(11):753-6.


82. Schmidt JB, et al.; Treatment of Skin Aging with Topical Estrogens. Int J Dermatol 1996 Sept; 35(9): 669-674.


83. McEwen BS, et al; Estrogen Actions in the Central Nervous System. Endocrine Review. June 1999. 20(3):279-307.

84. Polo-Kantola P, Erkkola R, Helenius H, Irjala K, Polo 0. When does estrogen replacement therapy improve sleep quality? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 May;178(5):1002-9

85. Shepherd JE; Effects of Estrogen on Cognition, Mood, and Degenerative Brain Diseases. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2001;41: 221-228.

86. Sherwin BB; Oestrogen and Cognitive Function Throughout the Female Lifespan. Depts. Psychology, Obstets & Gynecology, McGill University. pp. 188-201.

87. Sherwin BB; Estrogen Effects on Cognition in Menopausal Women. Neurology 1997; 4(supple 7):S21- 826.

88. Maki PM, et al; Longitudinal Effects of Estrogen Replacement Therapy on PET Cerebral Blood Flow and Cognition. Neurobiology of Aging. 2000. 21: 373-383.

89. Sherwin BB; Estrogenic Effects on Memory in Women. Depts. Psychology, Obstetrics & Gynecology. McGill Univ. pp. 213-231.

90. Shaywitz SE, et at; Effect of Estrogen on Brain Activation Patterns in Postmenopausal Women During Working Memory Tasks. JAMA. April 7, 1999 281(13):1197-1202.

91. Birge SJ; Is There a Role for Estrogen Replacement Therapy in the Prevention and Treatment of Dementia? JAGS. July 1996; 44(7): 865-870.

92. Sherwin BB; Can Estrogen Keep You Smart? Evidence From Clinical Studies. J

PsychiatryNeuroscience. Sep 2, 1999;24(4): 315-321.

93. Ramsay S; Stroke Contributes to Women’s Higher Mortality After Cardiac Surgery. The Lancet May 5, 2001; Vol 357.

94. Antonijevic IA, Stalla GK, Steiger A. Modulation of the sleep electroencephalogram by estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Feb;182(2):277-82


95. Ward D; Natural Progesterone: The Feel-Good’ Hormone. Vitamin Research Nutritional News April 1997.

96. de Lignières B; Oral Micronized Progesterone. Clinical Therapeutics. 1999; 21(1):41-60.

97. Martorano JY, et al; Differentiating Between natural Progesterone and Synthetic Pro gestins: Clinical Implications for Premenstrual Syndrome and Perimenopause Management. Comp Ther. 1998; 24(6/7):336-339.

98. Barentsen R, et at; Progestogens: Pharmacological Characteristics and Clinically Relevant Differences. J Eur Menopause 1996; (4):266-271.

99. Maxson WS, et at; Bioavallabiity of Oral Micronized Progesterone. Fertility & Sterility. Nov. 1985; 44(5): 622-626.

100. Norman TR, et at; Comparative Bioavailability of Orally and Vaginally Administered Progesterone. Fertility & Sterility. Dec 1991; 56(6):1034-1039.

101. Richards-Kustan CJ, et al; Diagnosis and Management of Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Bleeding. Obsteterics & Gynecology Clinics of N. America. March 1987;14(1):169-189.

102.Cicinelli E, et al; Effects of Progesterone Administered by Nasal Spray on the Human Postmenopausal Endomefrium. Maturitas March 9, 1993;65-72.

103.Miles RA, et at.; Pharmacokinetics and Endometria! Tissue Levels of Progesterone After Administration by Intramuscular and Vaginal Routes: A Comparative Study. Fertil Steril, Sept. 1994; 62(3);485-90.

104.Leonetti HB, Wilson KJ, Anasi JN.; Topical Progesterone Cream Has Antiproliferative Effect on Estrogen-Stimulated Endometrium. Fertil Steril, 2003 Jan;79(1):221-2.

105.Cheng W, et al; Two Antiatherogenic Effects of Progesterone on Human Macrophages; Inhibition of Cholestr.4 Ester Synthesis and Block of Its Enhancement by Glucocorticoids. J Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1999; 84(1):265-271.

106.Desai H; Natural Progesterone Therapy in the Treatment of Preeclampsia. Unpublished, May 2001, Professional Compounding Centers of America.

107.Baulieu EE, Schumaker M. Neurosteroids, with special reference to the effect of progesterone on myelination in peripheral nerves. Mutt Scter 1997;3:105-112.

108.Wright DW, et at. Serum Progesterone levels correlate with decreased cerebral edema after traumatic brain injury in male rats. J Neurotrauma 2001;18;901-909.

109. Landau RL, et al.; Inhibition of the Sodium-Retaining influence of Aldosterone by Progesterone. Recent Progress in Hormone Research. Nov 85 Vol 18:1237-1245.

110. Laidlaw, et at.; The Influence of Estrogen and Progesterone on Aldosterone Excretion. Recent Progress in Hormone research Feb 1962 Vol 22:16-171.

111. Landau RL, et al; The Catabolic and Nutriuretic Effects of Progesterone in Man. Recent Progress in Hormone Research 1964 pg 249-284.

112. Corvol  P, et al; Effect of Progesterone and Progestins on Water and Salt Metabolism. Progesterone and Progestins, 1983 pg 179-186.

113.Tavaniotou A, et al; Comparison between different routes of progesterone administration as luteal phase support in infertility treatments. Human Reproduction Update 2000; 6(2):139-148.

114.O’Leary P. Carlstrom K, Damber J, et al. Salivary, but not serum or urinary levels of progesterone are elevated after topical application of progesterone cream to pre-and postmenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2000 Nov;53(5):615-20.

115.Graham C; Physiological action of progesterone in target tissues. Endoc Rev 1997;18:502-519.

116.Leonefti H, Wilson J, Anasti J. Transdermal Progesterone Cream for Vasomotor Symptoms and Postmenopausal Bone Loss. Obstet Gynecol 1999 Aug ;94(2): 225-8.

117.Kim S, Korhonen M, Wilbom W, Foldesy R, Snipes W, Hodgen GD, Anderson FD. Antiproliferative effects of/ow-dose micronized progesterone. Fedi! Steril. 1996 Feb;65(2):323-31.

118.Gillet JY, Andre G, Faguer B, Emy R, Buvat-Herbaut M, Domin MA, Kuhn JM, Hedon B, Drapier-Faure E, BarratJ, et al. Induction of amenoffhea during hormone replacement therapy: optimal micronized progesterone dose. A multicenter study. Maturitas. 1994 Aug;19(2):103-15

119.Burry K, Patton P, Hermsmeyer K. Percutaneous absorption of progesterone in postmenopausal women treated with transdermal estrogen. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Jun;180(6 Pt 1)1504-11.

120.Carey B, Carey A, Patel S, et al. A study to evaluate serum and urinary hormone levels following short and long term administration of two regimens of progesterone cream in postmenopausal women. BJOG. 2000 Jun;107(6):722-6.

121 .Lane G, Siddle NC, Ryder TA, Pryse-Davies .1, King RJ, Whitehead MI. Dose dependent effects of oral progesterone on the oestrogenised postmenopausal endomettium. Br Med J (Gun Res Ed). 1983 Oct 29;287(6401)1241-5

122.Rudel HW, Kinel Fa. The toxicity of progesterone.  In International encyclopedia of pharmacology and therapeutics. Tausck M, editor. Pergamon Press, New York, 1971, pg 405-9.


123.Prior JC; Progesterone as a Bone-Trophic Hormone. Endocrine Review. 1990, 11(2):386-398.

124.Lee JR; Is Natural Progesterone the Missing Link in Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment? Medical Hypotheses. 1991;35:, 316-318.

125.Prior JC, et al; Progesterone and the Prevention of Osteoporosis. The Canadian Journal of OB/GYN & Women’s Health Care. 1991. 3(4):178-184.

126.Barengolts El, Gajardo HF, Rosol TJ, D’Anza JJ, Pena M, Botsis J, Kukreja SC. Effects of progesterone on postovariectomy bone loss in aged rats. J Bone Miner Res. 1990 Nov;5(11):1143-7.

127.Bumett CC, Reddi AH. Influence of estrogen and progesterone on matrix-induced endochondral bone formation. Calcif Tissue Int. 1983 Jul;35(4-5):609-14

128.Bowman BM, Miller SC. Elevated progesterone during pseudopregnancy may prevent bone loss associated with low estrogen. J Bone Miner Res. 1996 Jan;11(1):15-21

129. MacNamara P, Loughrey NC. Progesterone receptor A and B isoform expression in human osteoblasts. Calcif Tissue Int 1998; 63:39-46.

130.Gronowicz GA, McCarthy MB, Glucocorticiods inhibit the attachment of osteoblasts to bone extracellular matrix proteins and decrease 131-integrin levels. Endocrinology 1995;136:598-608.

131 .Trotter A. The replacement of oestradiol and progesterone in very premature infants. Ann Med 2000; 86:601-603.


132.Miyagawa K; Medroxyprogesterone interferes with ovarian steroid protection against coronary vasospasm. Nature Med 1997 Mar;3(3):324327.

133.Bolaji II, et al; Low-Dose Progesterone Therapy in Oestrogenised Postmenopausal Women: Effects on Plasma Lipids, Lipoproteins and Liver Function Parameters. European Journal of Ob/Gyn & Reproductive Biology. 48 (1993): 61-68

134.Darj E, et al; Liver Metabolism During Treatment with Estradiol and Natural Progesterone. Gynecol. Endocrinol. 7(1993): 111-114.

135.Chang HY, et al Different role of endothelium/nitric oxide in 17E-estradiol and progesterone-induced relaxation in rat arteries. Life Sci 2001;69:1609-1617.

136.Crews JK, RA Khali, Antagonistic effects of 178-estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on Ca++ mechanism of coronary vasoconstriction. Arteriosclr Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:1034-1040.

137.Mather KJ, Norman EG, Prior JC, et at Preserved forearm ebdothelial responses with acute exposure to progesterone: A randomized cross-over trail of 1713-estradiol, progesterone, and 17/3-estradiol with progesterone in healthy menopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:4644-4649.

138.Lee WS, Harder JA. Progesterone inhibits arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation. Nat Med 1997;3:1005-1008.

139.Karas RH, Van Eickels M, Lydon JP. A complex role for the progesterone receptor in the response to vascular injury. J Clin Invest 2001;108:611-618.

140.Jiang C, et al Progesterone induces endothelium-independent relaxation of rabbit coronary artery in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol 1992;211:163-167.

141.Kojima K, Abe-Dohmae S, Arakawa R, et al. Progesterone inhibits apolipoprotein-mediated cellular lipid release: a putative mechanism for the decrease of high-density lipoprotein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Jun 29;1532(3):173-84.


142.Arafat ES, Hargrove JT, Maxon HS, et al. Sedative and Hypnotic Effects of Oral Administration of Micronized Progesterone May Be Mediated Through Its Metabolites. AM J Obstet Gynecol Nov. 1988 159(5);1203-1209.

143.Rupprecht R, Koch M, Montkowski A, Lancet M, Faulhaber J, Harting J, Spanagel R. Assessment of neuroleptic-like properties of progesterone. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999 Mar;143(1):29-38.

144.Lancel M, Faulhaber J, Holsboer F, Rupprecht R. The GABA(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin attenuates most sleep changes induced by progesterone. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999 Jan;141(2):213-9

145.Freeman EW, et al; Anxiolytic Metabolites of Progesterone: Correlation With Mood and Performance Measures Following Oral Progesterone Administration to Healthy Female Volunteers. Clinical Neuroendocrinology. 1993; 58, 478-484.

146. Koenig HL, Schumacher M, Ferzaz B, Thi AN, Ressouches A, Guennoun R, Jung-Testas I, Robel P, Akwa Y, Baulieu EE Progesterone synthesis and myelin formation by Schwann cells. Science. 1995 Jun 9;268(5216):1500-3

147.Rupprecht R; Neuroactive Steroids: Mechanisms of Action and Neuropsychopharmacological Peproperties. Psyconeuroendocrinology 2003 Feb; 28(2):139-168..

148.Roof RL, Duvdevani R, Stein DG; Gender influences outcome of brain injury: progesterone plays a protective role. Brain Res 1993 Apr 2; 607(1-2):336-6.

149.Balieu EE. Neurosteroids, with special reference to the effect of progesterone on myelination inperipheral nerves. Mutt Scle5 1997;3:105-112.

150.Wright DW, ME Bauer, SW Hoffman, et al. Serum progesterone levels correlate with decreased cedrebral edema after traumatic injury in male rats. J Neurotrauman 2001;18:901-909.

151 .Herzog AG. Progesterone therapy in women with complex partial and secondary generalized seizures. Neurology 1995 Sep;45(9):1660-2.

152.Liporace J. Safer Seizure Protection., accessed 1/7/02.

153.Harden CL, et al. The effect of menopause and perimenopause on the course of epilepsy. Epilepsia 2001 Apr; 42(4):572

154.Backstrom T. Epileptic seizures in women related to plasma estrogen and progesterone during the menstrual cycle. Acta Neural Scand 1976.

155.A. Trooter, et at Management of the extremely premature infant: Is the replacement of estradiol and progesterone beneficial? Paediatr Drugs 2001; 3:629-637.


156.The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial; Effects of Estrogen or Estrogen/Progestin Regimens

157.on Heart Disease-Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women; JAMA, Jan 1995; 273:3;199-208.

158.Physicians Desk Reference, 44th edition, 1990.

159.Bolaji, etat. Low-dose progesterone therapy in oestrogenised postmenopausal women; effects on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and liver function parameters; EUROBS, 48 (1993) 61-68.

160.Darj, E,et.aI. Liver metabolism during treatment with estradiol and natural progesterone; GynecoLEndocrinol. 7 (1993)111-114.

161.Rylance, PB; et al.; Natural progesterone and antihypertensive action.; Br Med J (Gun Res Ed) 1985 Jan 5;290(6461) 13-4.

162.Sammour MB, et al.. Progesterone therapy in preclamptic toxaemia. Acta Obstet Gynec Scand. 1975; 54:195-202.

163. Sammour MB, et al.. Progesterone therapy in pregnancy-induced hypertension therapeutic value and hormonal profile Clin % Exp Hyper-Hyper in Preg. 1982; 131 :455-78.

164.Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and Benefits of Estrogen Plus Progestin in Healthy Postmenopausal Women. Principle results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002; 288:321-333,

165. Minshafi D R, Stanczyk Z F, Miyagawa K, Uchida B, Axthelm M, Novy M et. al, Ovarian Steroid Protection against Coronary Artery Hyperreactivity in Rhesus Monkeys. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1998: 83(2) p. 649-59.

166.Miyagawa K, Rosch J, Stanczyk F, Hermsmeyere K. Medroxyprogesterone interferes with ovarian protection against coronary vasospasm. Nat Med 1997;3:324-327

167.H. Seeger, et al; Effect of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate and Norethisterone on Serum-Stimulated and Estradiol-Inhibited Proliferation of Human Coronary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells. Menopause.2001. 8(1): 5-9.

168.Adams M, Register T, Golden D, et al. Medroxyprogesterone acetate antagonizes inhibitory effects of conjugated equine estrogens on coronary artery atherosclerosis. Arterioscier Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 Jan;17(1):217-21

169.Wakatsuki A, Okatani Y, lkenoue N, et al. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on endothelium- dependent vasodilation in postmenopausal women receiving estrogen. Circulation. 2001 Oct 9;104(15):1773-8

170. Williams J, Honore E, Washburn 8, et al. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on reactivity of atherosclerotic coronary arteries in cynomolgus monkeys. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;224:1757-1761.

171.MinshaH RD, Miyagawa K, Chadwick CC, Novy MJ, Hermsmeyer K. In vitro modulation of primate coronary vascular muscle cell reactivity by ovarian steroid hormones. FASEB J 1998:12(13) p. 1419-29.

172. Lee, WS, Harder JA, Yoshizumi M, Lee ME, Harber E; Progesterone inhibits arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation. Nat Med 1997 Sep;3(9):1005-1008.

173. Carmody, BJ, et. al; Progesterone inhibits infragenicular arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by high glucose and insulin concentrations. J Vase Surg 2002 Oct;36(4):833-8.

174.Molinari C, et al.; The effect of Progesterone on coronary blood flow in anaesthesized pigs. Exp Physiol 2001 Jan;86(1):101-108.

175. Rosano GM Webb CM, Chierchia S, Morgani GL, Gabraele M, Sarrel PM, et. al. Natural progesterone, but not medroxyprogesterone acetate, enhances the beneficial effect of estrogen on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in postmenopausal women. JAm Coil Cardiol 2000:36(7) p. 2154-9.

176.Zhu, X, Bartolome,B, Kriopp, R; Estradiol 17JS inhibition of LDL oxidation and endothelial cell cytoxicity is opposed byprogestins to different degrees. Atherosclerosis 148(200) 31-41.

177.Estrogen and Progestogens in Clinical Practice; Harcourt Brace & Co, 1998 ISBN 0443 04706 5.

178. Nilsen, RD Brinton. Impact of progestins on estrogen-induced neuroprotection: Synergy by progesterone and 19-norprogesterone and antagonism by medrixyprogesterone acetate.  Endocrinology 2002;143:205-212.

179.Montplaisir J, et al., Sleep in menopause: differential effects of two forms of hormone replacement therapy. Menopause. 2001 Jan-Feb;8(1):10-16.

180.Arafat, ES, Sedative and hypnotic effects of oral administration of micronized progesterone may be mediated through its metabolffes. Am J Obstet Gynecol Nov 1988; 159(6):1203-09.

181.Cundy,T, Spinal Bone Density in Women Using Depot Medroxyprogesterone Contraception.  Obstet Gynecol 1998;92:569-573.

182.Prior, JC. Progesteone as a Bone Trophic Hormone. Endocr Rev 1990 May; 11(2):386-98.

183.Fitzpatrick, LA, et al, Comparison of Regimens Containing Oral Micronized Progesterone or Medroxyprogesterone Acetate on Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Journal of Women’s Health & Gender-Based Medicine, 2000, Nov 4: 9(4) 381-387.


184.Davis SR. The Clinical Use of Androgens in Female Sexual Disorders. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 1998.24:153-163.

185.Laughlin GA, et al. Hysterectomy, Oophorectomy, and Endogenous Sex Hormone Levels in Older Women: The Rancho Bernardo Study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2000; 85(2):645-651.

186.Young RL. Androgens in Postmenopausal Therapy? Menopause Management. May 1993;21-24.

187.Miller KK. Androgen Deficiency in Women. J Clin Endo & Metab. 2001 86(6): 2395-2401.

188.Casson PR, et al. Effect of Postmenopausal Estrogen Replacement on Circulating Androgens. Obstets & Gynecol. Dec 1997. 90(6):995-998.

189.Gower BA, et al. Associations among Oral Estrogen Use, Free Testosterone Concentration, and Lean Body Mass among Postmenopausal Women. J Clinical Endo & Metabolism. 2000;85(12): 4476-4480.

190.Shifren JL, et aL Transdermal Testosterone Treatment in Women with Impaired Sexual Function After Oophorectomy. N Eng J Med Sept. 2000.343(10):682-8.

191.Rako S. Testosterone Deficiency and Supplementation for Women: What Do We Need to Know? Menopause Management, Sept./Oct. 1996;10-15.

192.Winkler UH. Effects of androgens on haemostatis. Maturitas 24(1996) 147-155

193.Davis SS. Androgens and Female Sexuality. JGSM Jan/Feb 2000. 3(1):36-40.

194.Palacioz K. Testosterone Replacement for Women. Pharmacist’s Letter. Dec 2000.

195.Sherwin BB, et al. Androgen Enhances Sexual Motivation in Females: A Prospective, Crossover Study of Sex Steroid Administration in the Surgical Menopause. Psychosomatic Medicine July/August 1985. 47(4):339-351.

196.Casson PR, Andersen RN, Herrod HG, Stentz FB, Straughn AB, Abraham GE, Buster JE.Oral dehydroepiandrosterone in physiologic doses modulates immune function in postmenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Dec;169(6):1536-9

197.Watts ND, et al. Comparison of Oral Estrogens and Estrogens Plus Androgen on Bone Mineral Density, Menopausal Symptoms, and Lipid-Lipoprotein Profiles in Surgical Menopause. Obstetrics & Gynecology. April 1995. 85(4):529-537.

198.Barrett-Connor E, et al. A Two-Year, Double-Blind Comparison of Estrogen- Androgen and Conjugated Estrogens in Surgically Menopausal Women. J Reproductive Medicine. Dec 1999. 44(12):1012‑1020.

199.K.K. Miller, et al. Androgen Deficiency in Women with Hypopituitarism. J Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2001; 86(2):561-567.

200.Miller K, et al. Transdermal Testosterone Administration in Women with Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome Wasting: A Pilot Study. J Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1998. 83(8):2717-2725.

201 .Burger HG, et al. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Serum Testosterone Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate, and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels Through the Menopause Transition. J Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2000. 85(8):2832-2838.

202.Ebeling P. et al. Physiological Importance of Dehydroepiandrosterone. The Lancet.June 11, 1994; Vol 343:1479-1481.

203.Hunt PJ, et al. improvement in Mood and Fatigue after Dehydroepiandrosterone Replacement in Addison’s Disease in a Randomized, Double Blind Trial. J Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2000.85(12):4650-4656.

204. Morales AJ, et al. Effects of Replacement Dose of Dehydroepiandrosterone in Men and Women of Advancing Age. J Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1994. 78(6)1360-1367.

205.Legrain S, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone Replacement Administration Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Studies in Healthy ElderlySubjects. J Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2000. 85(9):3208-3217.

206.Bamhart KT, et al. The Effect of Dehydroeplandrosterone Supplementation to Symptomatic Perimenopausal Women on Serum Endocrine Profiles, Lipid Parameters, and Health-Related Quality of Life. J Clinical Endo & Metabo/. 1999. 84(11):3896-3902.

207.Callies F, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone Replacement in Women With Adrenal Insufficiency: Effects on Body Composition, Serum Leptin, Bone Turnover, and Exercise Capacity. J Clinical Endo & Metabol. 2001. 86(5):1968-1972.

208.Achermann JC, eta.; Dehydroepiandrosterone Replacement for Patients With Adrenal Insufficiency. The Lancet May 5, 2001. Vol 357:1381-2.

209. Hunt PJ, et al. Improvement in Mood and Fatigue after Dehydroepiandrosterone Replacement in Addison’s Disease in a Randomized, Double Blind Trial. J Clinical Endo & Metabol. 2000.85(12):4650-4656.

210.F. Labile, et al. Effect of 12-Month Dehydroepiandrosterone Replacement Therapy on Bone, Vagina, and Endometrium in Postmenopausal Women. J Clinical Endo & Metabol. 1997.82(10):3498-3505.

211 .Slater CC, et al; Comparison of Estrogen and Androgen Levels After Oral Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Journal of Reproductive Medicine; Dec 2001; 46(12):1052-1055.

212.Tuiten, et al; Time Course of Effects of Testosterone – Administration on Sexual Arousal in Women. Arch Gen Psychiatry Feb 2000; Vol 37, p9149-153.

213.A.J. Morales, et al; The effect of six months treatment with a 100 mg daily dose of

dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on circulating sex steroids, body composition and muscle strength in age-advanced men and women Clinical Endocrinology (1998) 49:421-432.

214.Davis S, McCloud P. Strauss B, Burger, H. Testosterone enhances estradiors effects on postmenopausal bone density and sexuality. Maturitas 1995 Apr;21(3):227-236.

215.Miller B, De Souza M, Slade K, Luciano A. Sublingual administration of micronized estradiol and progesterone, with and without micronized testosterone: effect on biochemical markers of bone metabolism and bone mineral density. Menopause 2000 Sep-Oct;7(5):318-326.

216.Scott L, Salahuddin F, Cooney J, et al. Differences in adrenal steroid profile in chronic fatigue syndrome, in depression, and in health. J Affect Disord 1999;54:129-137.


217.Zumoff B, Fishman J, Bradlow J, Hellman L. Hormone Profiles in Hormone-Dependent Cancers. Cancer Research, Nov 19, 1975. 35(11 pt 2):3365-3373.

218.Zumoff B. Hormonal Profiles in Women with Breast Cancer. Obstets & Gynecol Clinics of North America. Dec 1994;21(4): 751-72.

219.Sellers TA, et al. The Role of Hormone Replacement Therapy in the Risk for Breast Cancer and Total Mortality in Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer. Annals of Internal Medicine. Dec.1997; 127: 973-980.

220.Guzman RC, eta!; Hormonal Prevention of Breast Cancer: Mimicking the Protective Effect of Pregnancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA March 2,1999; 96(5):2520-5.

221.Lundstrom E, Wilczek B, von Palffy Z, Soderqvist G, von Schoultz B. Mammographic breast density during hormone replacement therapy: effects of continuous combination, unopposed transdermal and low-potency estrogen regimens. Climacteric. 2001 Mar;4(1):42-8.

222.Gajdos C, Tartter P1, Babinszki A. Breast Cancer Diagnosed During Hormone Replacement Therapy. Obstet & Gynecol. April 2000. 95(4):513-518.

223.Schairer C, Lubin J, et al. Menopausal Estrogen and Estrogen-Progestin Replacement Therapy and Breast Cancer Risk. JAMA. Jan. 26, 2000; 283(4):485-491.

224.Rodriguez C, et al; Estrogen Replacement Therapy and Ovarian Cancer Mortality in a Large Prospective Study of US Women. JAMA. Mar 21, 2001; 285(11)1460-1465.

225. Eden JA, et al; A Case-Control Study of Combined Continuous Estrogen- Progestin Replacement Therapy Among Women With a Personal History of Breast Cancer. Menopause. 1995; 2(2):67-72.

226.Madeleine MM, et al. Human Papillomavirus and Long-Term Oral Contraceptive Use Increase the Risk of Adenocarcinoma in Situ of the Cervix. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. March 2001;Vo110: 171-177.

227.Mahavni V; Hormone replacement therapy and cancer risks. Cuff Opin Oncol; 2001 Sept:13(5):384-9.

228.Grodstein F,et al, Postmenopasusal hormone therapy and the risk of colorectal cancer a review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 1999 May:106(5):574-582.

229.Hale GE, Hughes CL, Cline JM. Clinical Review 139, Endometrial Cancer: Hormonal Factors, the Perimenopausal “Window of Risk,” and lsoflavones.

230.Chen C, Weiss N, et al. Hormone Replacement Therapy in Relation to Breast Cancer 231. McLellan F. The Lancet, Independent US panel fans debate on mammography. 232.Gorman C, Rethinking Breast Cancer. Time. 2002 Feb 18;159(7):50-58.


233.Chang KJ, et al. Influences of Percutaneous Administration of Estradiol and Progesterone on Human Breast Epithelial Cell Cycle In Vivo. Fertil Steril April 1995; 63(4):785-791.

234.Shyamala G. Progesterone action in human breast cancer. 1995 available at // ib0448.html. Accessed 10-17-2001.

235.Cowan LD, et al; Breast Cancer Incidence in Women with a History of Progesterone Deficiency. Am J Epidemiol. Aug. 1981; 114(2):209-217.

236. Mohr P, Wang D, Gregory W, et al. Serum Progesterone and Prognosis in Operable Breast Cancer. Br J Cancer. June 1996; 73(12):1552-5.

237.Formby B, et al; Progesterone inhibits Growth and Induces Apotosis in Breast Cancer Cells: nverse Effects on I3c1-2 and p53. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science 1998;28(6):360-369.

238.Sivaraman L, Conneely OM, Medina D, O’Malley BW. p53 is a potential mediator of pregnancy and hormone-induced resistance to mammary carcinogenesis. Proc Nati Acad Sci USA 2001;98:12379-12384.

239.Yu S, et al. Apoptosis induced by progesterone in human ovarian cancer cell line SNU-840. J Cell Biochem 2001;82:445-451.

240.SZ B, YTin DL, Ren XH, et al. Progesterone Induces Apoptosis and Up-Regulation of P53 Expression in Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Lines. Cancer. May 15, 1997; 79(10)1944-1950.

241.Foidart JM, et al. Estradiol and progesterone regulate the proliferation of human breast epithelial cells. Fertil Steril. 1998 May;69(5):963-9.

242. Boman K, et al; The Influence of Progesterone and Androgens on the Growth of Endometrial Carcinoma. Cancer. June 1, 1993; 71(11):3565-3569.

243.Mauvais-Jarvis P, Kuttenn F, Gompel A. EstradioVprogesterone interaction in normal and pathologic breast cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1986; 464:152-67. Review

244.Mauvais-Jarvis P, Kuttenn F, Gompel A. Antiestrogen action of progesterone in breast tissue. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1986; 8(3):179-88. Review

245.Plu-Bureau G, et al. Percutaneous use and risk of breast cancer results from a French cohort study of premenopausal women with benign breast disease. Cancer Detect & Prey; 23(4):290-296.


246.Lemon H. Oestriol and Prevention of Breast Cancer. The Lancet. Mar 10, 1973: 546-7.

247. Lemon H. et al; Reduced Estriol Excretion in Patients with Breast Cancer Prior to Endocrine Therapy. JAMA. June 27, 1966, 196(12)112-120.

248.Lemon H. Pathophysiologic Considerations in the Treatment of Menopausal Patients with Oestrogens; the Role of Estriol in the Prevention of Mammary Carcinoma Acta Endocrinol Suppt (Copenh) 1980; 233:17-27.

249.Melamed M, Castano E, Notides A, Sasson S. Molecular and Kinetic Basis for the Mixed AgonisVAntagonist Activity of Estriol. Mol Endocrinol Nov 1997;11(12):1868-78

250.H.M. Lemon; Antimammary Carcinogenic Activity of 17-Alpha-Ethinyl Estriol. Cancer. July 1987.60:2873-2881.

251.L.F. Dickinson, et al. Estrogen Profiles of Oriental and Caucasian Women in Hawaii. NEJM. 1974.291:1211-1213.

252.Lemon H. Clinical and experimental aspects of the anti-mammary carinogenic activity of estriol. Front Horm Res. 1977;5:155-73.


253 .Yager JD, et al. Molecular Mechanisms of Estrogen Carcinogenesis. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1996;36: 203-232.

254.Bradlow HL, et al. 16 Alpha-hydroxylantion of Estradia A Possible Risk Marker for Breast Cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1986;464:138-51.

255.Cavalieri EL, et al. Molecular Origin of Cancer: Catechol Estrogen-3,4-Quinones as Endogenous Tumor Initiators. Proc Nat! Acad Sci USA. Sep 30, 1997.94(20)10937-42.

256.Cavalieri EL, Rogan EG, Chakravarti D. Initiation of cancer and other diseases by cathechol ortho­quinones: a unifying mechanism.Cell Mot Life Sci 2002; 59:665-681.

257.Reed MJ, Purohit A. Breast cancer and the role of cytokines in regulating estrogen synthesis: an emerging hypothesis. Endocr Rev. 1997 Oct18(5):701-15

258.Utsumi T, Yoshimura N, Takeuchi S. Elevated steroid sulphatase expression in breast cancers. J Steroid Biochem Mot Biol. 2000 Jun;73(3-4):141-5.

259.Bradlow HL, et al. 2-Hydroxyestrone: The “Good Estrogen”. J Endocrinol. Sep 1996;150 Suppl: S259-65.

260.Shen L, et al. Alkylation of 2′-Deoxynucleosides and DNA by the Premed!, Metabolite 4-Hydroxyequilenin Semiquinone Radical. Chem Res Toxicol. Feb. 1998; 11(2):94-101.

261 .Bolton JL, et al. Role of Quinoids in Estrogen Carcinogenesis. Chem Res Toxicol. Oct 1998:11(10) 1113-1127.

262.Zhang F, et al. The major metabolite of equilin, 4-hydroxyequilin, autoxidizes to an O-quinone which isomerizes to the potent cytotoxin 4-hydroxyequilenin-o-quinone. Chem Res Toxicol 1999 Feb;12(2):204-213

263.Chen Y. The equine estrogen metabolite 4-hydroxyequilenin causes DNA single-strand breaks and oxidation of DNA bases in vitro. Chem Res Toxicol 1998 Sept11(9):1 105-11.

264.Zhu HT, et al. The Carcinogenic Activity of Ethinyl Estrogens Is Determined by Both Their Hormonal Characteristics and Their Conversion to Catechol Metabolites. Endocrinology. 1993;132: 577-583.

265.Suzuki T, etal. 5 Alpha -Reductases in Human Breast Carcinoma: Possible Modulator of in Situ Androgenic Actions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 86(5): 2250-2257.


266.Wright JV. Cabbages, Broccoli, et al., Versus Sex Hormone Related Cancers. Nutrition & Healing. Feb 2000;7(2):1-8.

267.Bradlow HL, et al. Indole-3-Carbinol. A Novel Approach to Breast Cancer Prevention. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Sep 30, 1995. 768:180-200.

268.Telang NT, et al. Inhibition of Proliferation and Modulation of Estradiol Metabolism: Novel Mechanisms for Breast Cancer Prevention by the Phytochemical Indole-3-Carbinol.

269.Chen 1, et al. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Antiestrogenic and Antitumorigenic Activity of Dfindolylmethane. Carcinogenesis. 1998;19(9):1631-1639.

270.Hall DC. Nutritional Influences on Estrogen Metabolism. Applied Nutritional Science Reports 2001 by Advanced Nutrition Publications, Inc.

271.Adlercreutz H. Phytoestrogens: Epidemiology and a Possible Role in Cancer Protection.

Environmental Health Perspectives. Oct 1995; 103(7): 103-112.

272.Lu LW, et at. Decreased Ovarian Hormones During a Soya Diet: Implications for Breast Cancer Prevention. Cancer Research 60. Aug 2000: 4112-4121.

273.Dog TL et al. Traditional and Alternative Therapies for Breast Cancer. Alternative Therapies. May/June 2001;7(3):36-47.

274.Wiseman RA. Breast Cancer Hypothesis: A Single Cause for the Majority of Cases. J Epidemiot Community Health. 2000.54:851-858.

275.Lichtenstein P, et al Environmental and Heritable Factors in the Causation of Cancer. NEJM. July 13, 2000. 343(2):78-85.


276.Kuhl H; Phannacokinetics of Oestrogens and Progestogens. Maturitas Sept 1990; 12(3):171-97.

277.Greenlatt RB, Natrajan PK, Aksu MF, Tzingounis VA The fate of a large bolus of exogenous estrogen administered to postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 1980 Jan;2(1):29-35

278.Ojasoo T, et at; Affiliations Among Steroid Receptors as Revealed by Multivariate Analysis of Steroid Binding Data. J Steroid Biochem Mol Blot Jan 1994;48(1):31-46.

279. Devenuto F, et at; Human Erythrocyte Membrane. Uptake of Progesterone and Chemical Alterations. Biochim Biophys Acta Oct. 1969; 193(1):36-47.

280.Koefoed P, et at; The Permeability of the Human Red Cell Membrane to Steroid Sex Hormones, Biochim Biophys Acta Oct. 1994; 1195(l):55-62.

281.Hiramatsu R, et al; Erythrocyte-Associated Cortisol: Measurement, Kinetics of Dissociation, and Potential Physiological Significance. J Clinical Endo & Metabolism. 1987. 64(6):1224-1232.

282.Johnson MK, et at; Permeation of Steroids Through Human Skin. J Pharm Sd. 1995 Sep; 84(9):1144-6.

283. Nahoul K, et at; Profiles of Plasma Estrogens, Progesterone and Their Metabolites After Oral or Vaginal Administration of Estradiol or Progesterone. Maturitas. May 1993; 16(3):185-202.

284.Ottoson U, Caristrom K, Damber J, Von Schouttz B. Serum levels of progesterone and some of its metabolites including deoxycorticosterone after oral and parenteral administration. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1984 Nov;91(11):1111-9.

285.Basbug M, Aygen E, Tayyar M, Muhtarogtu S, Demir I, Okten S; Twenty Two Weeks of Transdermal Estradiol Increases Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Surgical Menopausal Women. European Jour of Obstetrics * Gynecol & Reproductive 1997; 73:149-152.

286.Fanchin R, De Ziegler D, Bergeron C, et at. Transvaginal administration of progesterone. Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Sep;90(3):396-401

287.Pasquati R, et at; Determinants of Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Blood Concentrations in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women With Different Estrogen Status. Metabolism 1997 Jan;46(1):5-9.

288.Moghrabi N, et at; 17 Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Physiological Roles in Health and Disease. TEM 1998; 9(7):265-270,

289.DeVenuto F, et at; Pub Med, Interaction of Progesterone and Aldosterone with Red Blood Cells of the Rat. Proc Soc Exp Blot Med 1967 Feb;1242):478-83.

290. O’Sullican AJ, et at; Route-Dependent Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Jour Ped Endocrinol & Metabol 2000; 13:1457-1466.

291 .Waddell B; Distribution and metabolism of topically applied progesterone in a rat model. J Ster Biochem & Mole Blo. 2002; 80:449455.

292.Flier JS, et al.; Receptors, AntireceptorAntibodies and Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance. NEJM Feb 22,1979; 300(8):413-419.


293.Arem R, Excalante D; Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Significance. Advances in Internal Medicine 1996, Vol 41: 213-250.

294.Wartofsky L The Scope and Impact of Thyroid Disease. Clinical Chemistry, 1996. 42(l):121-4. 2951aycock MA, et at. The Neuromuscular Effects of Hypothyroidism. Seminars in Neurology. Sept. 1991; 11(5):288-294.

296.Kellman R. Your Thyroid May be Low, After All.

297.Toft D. Thyroid Hormone Replacement-One Hormone or Two? NEJM Vol 340 No. 6

298.Bunevicius R, et al. Effects of Thyroxine as Compared with Thyroxine Plus Triiodothyronine in Patients with Hypothyroidism. NEJM Feb 1999; 340(6):469-70.

299.Haddow JE, et al. Maternal Thyroid Deficiency During Pregnancy and Subsequent Neuropsychological Development of the Child. NEJM Aug. 19,1999; 341(8):549-555.

300.Stewart DE, et al. Thyroid Function in Psychosis Following Childbirth. Am J Psychiatry Dec 1988: 145(12):1579-81.

301 .Schmidt PJ, et al. Thyroid Function in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome. JCE& M.1993;76: 6714.

302.Utiger RD. Estrogen increases the requirement for thyroxine in women with hypothyroidism. Cfin Thyroidolog 2001; Vol. XII:Issue 2:28.

303.Chadarevian R, et al. Components of the Fibrinolytic System Are Differently Altered in Moderate and Severe Hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 86(2):732-737.

304.Arafah BM, et al. Increased Need for Thyroxine in Women with Hypothyroidism during estrogen therapy. N Engl J med 2001 Jun 7;344(23)1743-9.

305.Tagawa N, Tamanaka J, Fujinami A, et al. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and pregnenolone sulfate concentrations in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Clin Chem 2000;46:523-528.


306.Levitt ME, et al Fluid and Electrolyte. American Journal of Medicine. Dec 195; 715-723. 307.Jacobs DR, et al. A Salt-losing Steroid. JCEM. 1960.

308.Jacobs DR. Natriuretic Activity of 17-hydroxyprogesterone in Man. ACYA Endocrinologica.1969. 61:275-282.

309.Beisel WR, et al. Interrelations Between Adrenocortical Functions and Infectious Illness. NEJM March 1969.280(11): 596-604.

310.Jefferies WM, et al. Treatment of Ovarian Dysfunction with Small Doses of Cortisone or Hydrocortisone paper from Fortieth Annual Meeting of The Endocrine Society, San Francisco, June 19, 1958.

311.Jefferies WM. Treatment of Ovarian Dysfunction with Cortisone or Estrogen. Journal of Mississippi State Medical Assoc. May 1967. 8(5):279-283.

312.Jefferies WM. Thyroid and Adrenal Problems in Gynecology.

313.Jefferies WM. Low Dosage Glucocorticoid Therapy.; An Appraisal of its Safety and Mode of Acton in Clinical Disorders Including Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arch Intern Med Mar 1967.119(3):265-278.

314.Jefferies WM. Cortisol and Immunity. Mec Hypotheses Mar 1991;34(3)198-208.


315. Lissen LW, Cooke JP. Phytoestrogens and cardiovascular health. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 May;35(6):1403-10. Review.

316.Dewell A, et al. The Effects of Soy-Derived Phytoestrogens on Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins in Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Postmenopausal Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab Jan 2002; 87(1)118-121.